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ethnic group once had its own script but has lost it after the Qing Dynasty (1644-19▓11) was founded. A growing number of Xib▓e people came to learn the Manchu and Han languages, th▓e latter being more widely used. In Xinjiang, however, som

of modern China again

st foreign a

e Xibe people know both the Uygur and Kazak languages. In 1947, certain Xibe in▓tellectuals reformed the Manchu language they were using by dropping some phonetic symbols ▓and adding new letters of the Xibe l


  • ggres▓sion.The Kirgiz and Kazaks assisted the Qing
  • government ▓in its efforts to crush the r
  • ebellion b▓y the nobility of Dzungaria and the Seni▓or and Jun
  • ior Khawaja.They resisted assaults by the rebell
  • ious Yukub Beg in 1864, and when th
  • e Qing troops came to southern Xinjiang to fight Yukub Beg's army

, they gave

them a

anguage. ▓This Xibe script has been used as an official langua▓ge by the organs of power in the autonomous a▓reas.The Xibe ethnic minority in Xinjiang believe▓d in Polytheism before China¡¯s national

liberation in 1949. In addition to the gods of insect, dragon, land and smallpox, the Xibes also worshipped divine▓ protectors of homes and animals.

der security,"

  • a is basically the same as that▓ of the Han people. Rice and flour are staples for the Xibes. Those in Xinjiang who raise cattle and ▓sheep like tea with milk, butter, cream, cheese and other dairy products. April ▓18 on the lunar calendar is the fe

    the Kuomintang regime i
  • s▓tival of the Xibes, who would make flour ▓or bean sauce on this day to mark the successful conclusion of their ancestors' westward move. In autumn, they would pickle cabbage, leek, carrot, celery and hot pepper. The Xibes enjoy hunting and fish

    n 1944 ordered the closing o
  • ing during the slack farming season. They also cure fish for winter use.There are usually 100 to 200 households in each Xib▓e village, which is enclosed with a w▓all two or three miles long. A Xibe hous

    f many pasturelands,
depriving the Kirgiz he rdsmen of their livelihood. As
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